Com a palavra-chave albaca, filtramos quase 30 resultados que melhor correspondem às necessidades de pesquisa das pessoas

image of Restaurant Coronado Island - Dining | ALBACA

Restaurant Coronado Island - Dining | ALBACA

Experience flavorful indoor or alfresco dining at ALBACA, a relaxing waterfront restaurant on Coronado Island. Back when the Californias were one, they were designated as Alta and Baja. Our concept features the bounty of the terroir, with a modern interpretation that fuses the many cultures that share it.ALBACA, the restaurant at Coronado Island Marriott Resort, showcases seasonal, local dining with an emphasis on California's diverse culinary culture..

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albaca - English Translation - Word Magic Spanish-English ...

Translate "albaca" to English: basil. Spanish Synonyms of "albaca": albahaca, bandana. Define meaning of "albaca": Planta anual de la familia de las labiadas, con hojas oblongas y muy verdes y flores blancas. Tiene un penetrante olor aromático y se cultiva en los jardines. About this Bilingual English-Spanish Dictionary.English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word 'albaca'.
Keyword: albaca, Spanish, English, translation

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image of Albahaca | Spanish to English Translation - SpanishDict

Albahaca | Spanish to English Translation - SpanishDict

1. (herb) a. basil. Tengo que comprar albahaca para hacer el pesto para el pescado.I need to buy basil to make the pesto for the fish. El último ingrediente que le debes añadir al guiso es la albahaca. The last ingredient you should add to the stew is the basil.Translate Albahaca. See authoritative translations of Albahaca in English with example sentences and audio pronunciations..

Tengo que comprar albahaca para hacer el pesto para el pescado.

I need to buy basil to make the pesto for the fish.

El ultimo ingrediente que le debes anadir al guiso es la albahaca.

The last ingredient you should add to the stew is the basil.

image of Alpaca - Wikipedia

Alpaca - Wikipedia

Vicugna pacos (Linnaeus, 1758) The alpaca ( Lama pacos) is a species of South American camelid mammal. It is similar to, and often confused with, the llama. However, alpacas are often noticeably smaller than llamas. The two animals are closely related and ….

Domesticated species of South American camelid

The alpaca (Lama pacos) is a species of South American camelid mammal. It is similar to, and often confused with, the llama. However, alpacas are often noticeably smaller than llamas. The two animals are closely related and can successfully crossbreed. Both species are believed to have been domesticated from their wild relatives, the vicuna and guanaco. There are two breeds of alpaca: the Suri alpaca and the Huacaya alpaca.

Alpacas are kept in herds that graze on the level heights of the Andes of Southern Peru, Western Bolivia, Ecuador, and Northern Chile at an altitude of 3,500 to 5,000 metres (11,000 to 16,000 feet) above sea level.[1] Alpacas are considerably smaller than llamas, and unlike llamas, they were not bred to be working animals but were bred specifically for their fiber. Alpaca fiber is used for making knitted and woven items, similar to sheep's wool. These items include blankets, sweaters, hats, gloves, scarves, a wide variety of textiles and ponchos in South America, and sweaters, socks, coats and bedding in other parts of the world. The fiber comes in more than 52 natural colors as classified in Peru, 12 as classified in Australia, and 16 as classified in the United States.

Alpacas communicate through body language. The most common is spitting when they are in distress, fearful, or mean to show dominance.[2] Male alpacas are more aggressive than females, and tend to establish dominance of their herd group. In some cases, alpha males will immobilize the head and neck of a weaker or challenging male in order to show their strength and dominance.

In the textile industry, "alpaca" primarily refers to the hair of Peruvian alpacas, but more broadly it refers to a style of fabric originally made from alpaca hair, such as mohair, Icelandic sheep wool, or even high-quality wool from other breeds of sheep. In trade, distinctions are made between alpacas and the several styles of mohair and luster.[3]

An adult alpaca generally is between 81 and 99 centimetres (32 and 39 inches) in height at the shoulders (withers). They usually weigh between 48 and 90 kilograms (106 and 198 pounds).[4]


The relationship between alpacas and vicunas was disputed for many years. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the four South American lamoid species were assigned scientific names. At that time, the alpaca was assumed to be descended from the llama, ignoring similarities in size, fleece and dentition between the alpaca and the vicuna. Classification was complicated by the fact that all four species of South American camelid can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.[5] The advent of DNA technology made a more accurate classification possible.

In 2001, the alpaca genus classification changed from Lama pacos to Vicugna pacos, following the presentation of a paper[6] on work by Miranda Kadwell et al. on alpaca DNA to the Royal Society showing the alpaca is descended from the vicuna, not the guanaco.

Origin and domestication

Alpacas were domesticated thousands of years ago. The Moche people of Northern Peru often used alpaca images in their art.[7] There are no known wild alpacas, and its closest living relative, the vicuna (also native to South America), is the wild ancestor of the alpaca.

The family Camelidae first appeared in Americas 40–45 million years ago, during the Eocene period, from the common ancestor, Protylopus. The descendants divided into Camelini and Lamini tribes, taking different migratory patterns to Asia and South America, respectively. Although the camelids became extinct in North America around 3 million years ago, it flourished in the South with the species we see today.[8] It was not until 2–5 million years ago, during the Pliocene, that the genus Hemiauchenia of the tribe Lamini split into Palaeolama and Lama; the latter would then split again into Lama and Vicugna upon migrating down to South America.

Remains of vicuna and guanaco have been found throughout Peru for around 12,000 years. Their domesticated counterparts, the llama and alpacas, have been found mummified in the Moquegua valley, in the south of Peru, dating back 900 to 1000 years. Mummies found in this region show two breeds of alpacas. More precise analysis of bone and teeth of these mummies has demonstrated that alpacas were domesticated from the Vicugna vicugna. Other research, considering the behavioral and morphological characteristics of alpacas and their wild counterparts, seems to indicate that alpacas could find their origins in Lama guanicoe as well as Vicugna vicugna, or even a hybrid of both.

Genetic analysis shows a different picture of the origins of the alpaca. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA shows that most alpacas have guanaco mtDNA, and many also have vicuna mtDNA. But microsatellite data shows that alpaca DNA is much more similar to vicuna DNA than to guanaco DNA. This suggests that alpacas are descendants of the Vicugna vicugna, not of the Lama guanicoe. The discrepancy with mtDNA seems to be a result of the fact that mtDNA is only transmitted by the mother, and recent husbandry practices have caused hybridization between llamas (which primarily carry guanaco DNA) and alpacas. To the extent that many of today's domestic alpacas are the result of male alpacas bred to female llamas, this would explain the mtDNA consistent with guanacos. This situation has led to attempts to reclassify the alpaca as Vicugna pacos.[6]


The alpaca comes in two breeds, Suri and Huacaya, based on their fibers rather than scientific or European classifications.

Huacaya alpacas are the most commonly found, constituting about 90% of the population.[9] The Huacaya alpaca is thought to have originated in post-colonial Peru. This is due to their thicker fleece which makes them more suited to survive in the higher altitudes of the Andes after being pushed into the highlands of Peru with the arrival of the Spanish.[10][better source needed]

Suri alpacas represent a smaller portion of the total alpaca population, around 10%.[9] They are thought to have been more prevalent in pre-Columbian Peru since they could be kept at a lower altitude where a thicker fleece was not needed for harsh weather conditions.[10][better source needed]


Alpacas are social herd animals that live in family groups, consisting of a territorial alpha male, females, and their young ones. Alpacas warn the herd about intruders by making sharp, noisy inhalations that sound like a high-pitched bray. The herd may attack smaller predators with their front feet and can spit and kick. Their aggression towards members of the canid family (coyotes, foxes, dogs etc.) is exploited when alpacas are used as guard llamas for guarding sheep.[11][12]

Alpacas can sometimes be aggressive, but they can also be very gentle, intelligent, and extremely observant. For the most part, alpacas are very quiet, but male alpacas are more energetic when they get involved in fighting with other alpacas.[13] When they prey, they are cautious but also nervous when they feel any type of threat. They can feel threatened when a person or another alpaca comes up from behind them.[14][better source needed]

Alpacas set their own boundaries of "personal space" within their families and groups.[15] They make a hierarchy in some sense, and each alpaca is aware of the dominant animals in each group.[13] Body language is the key to their communication. It helps to maintain their order. One example of their body communication includes a pose named broadside, where their ears are pulled back and they stand sideways. This pose is used when male alpacas are defending their territory.[2]

When they are young, they tend to follow larger objects and to sit near or under them. An example of this is a baby alpaca with its mother. This can also apply when an alpaca passes by an older alpaca.[15]


Alpacas are often very trainable and will usually respond to reward, most commonly in the form of food. They are able to be petted without getting agitated although this is usually only when the animal is not being patted around the head or neck. Alpacas are usually quite easy to herd; even in large groups. Although when being herded, it is recommended that the handler approaches the animals slowly and quietly, not doing this can result in danger for both the animals and the handler.[16]

Alpaca and llamas have started showing up in U.S. nursing homes and hospitals as trained, certified therapy animals. The Mayo Clinic says animal-assisted therapy can reduce pain, depression, anxiety, and fatigue. This type of animal therapy is growing in popularity, and there are several organizations throughout the United States that participate. [17]


Not all alpacas spit, but all are capable of doing so. "Spit" is somewhat euphemistic; occasionally the projectile contains only air and a little saliva, although alpacas commonly bring up acidic stomach contents (generally a green, grassy mix) and project it onto their chosen targets. Spitting is mostly reserved for other alpacas, but an alpaca will also occasionally spit at a human.

Spitting can result in what is called "sour mouth". Sour mouth is characterized by "a loose-hanging lower lip and a gaping mouth."[18]

Alpacas can spit for several reasons. A female alpaca spits when she is not interested in a male alpaca, typically when she thinks that she is already impregnated. Both sexes of alpaca keep others away from their food, or anything they have their eyes on. Most give a slight warning before spitting by blowing air out and raising their heads, giving their ears a "pinned" appearance.[15]

Alpacas can spit up to ten feet if they need to. For example, if another animal does not back off, the alpaca will throw up its stomach contents, resulting in a lot of spit.[19]

Some signs of stress which can lead to their spitting habits include: humming, a wrinkle under their eye, drooling, rapid breathing, and stomping their feet. When alpacas show any sign of interest or alertness, they tend to sniff their surroundings, watch closely, or stand quietly in place and stare.[19]

When it comes to reproduction, they spit because it is a response triggered by the progesterone levels being increased, which is associated with ovulation.[20]


Alpacas use a communal dung pile,[21] where they do not graze. This behaviour tends to limit the spread of internal parasites. Generally, males have much tidier, and fewer dung piles than females, which tend to stand in a line and all go at once. One female approaches the dung pile and begins to urinate and/or defecate, and the rest of the herd often follows. Alpaca waste is collected and used as garden fertilizer or even natural fertilizer.[2]

Because of their preference for using a dung pile for excreting bodily waste, some alpacas have been successfully house-trained.[22]

Alpacas develop dental hygiene problems which affect their eating and behavior. Warning signs include protracted chewing while eating, or food spilling out of their mouths. Poor body condition and sunken cheeks are also telltales of dental problems.


Alpacas make a variety of sounds:


Females are induced ovulators;[23] meaning the act of mating and the presence of semen causes them to ovulate. Females usually conceive after just one breeding, but occasionally do have trouble conceiving. Artificial insemination is technically difficult, expensive and not common, but it can be accomplished. Embryo transfer is more widespread.

A male is usually ready to mate for the first time between two and three years of age. It is not advisable to allow a young female to be bred until she is mature and has reached two-thirds of her mature weight. Over-breeding a young female before conception is possibly a common cause of uterine infections. As the age of maturation varies greatly between individuals, it is usually recommended that novice breeders wait until females are 18 months of age or older before initiating breeding.[24]

Alpacas can breed at any time throughout the year but it is more difficult to breed in the winter. Most breed during autumn or late spring. The most popular way to have alpacas mate is pen mating. Pen mating is when they move both the female and the desired male into a pen. Another way is paddock mating where one male alpaca is let loose in the paddock with several female alpacas.

The gestation period is, on average, 11.5 months, and usually results in a single offspring, or cria. Twins are rare, occurring about once per 1000 deliveries.[25] Cria are generally between 15 and 19 pounds, and are standing 30 to 90 minutes after birth.[26] After a female gives birth, she is generally receptive to breeding again after about two weeks. Crias may be weaned through human intervention at about six months old and 60 pounds, but many breeders prefer to allow the female to decide when to wean her offspring; they can be weaned earlier or later depending on their size and emotional maturity.

The average lifespan of an alpaca is between 15–20 years, and the longest-lived alpaca on record is 27 years.[27]

Habitat and lifestyle

Alpacas can be found throughout most of South America.[28] They typically live in temperate conditions in the mountains with high altitudes.

They are easy to care for since they are not limited to a specific type of environment. Animals such as flamingos, condors, spectacled bears, mountain lions, coyotes, llamas, and sheep live near alpacas when they are in their natural habitat.


Alpacas are native to Peru, but can be found throughout the globe in captivity.[28] It currently has the largest population, with over half the world's animals.[29] The population declined drastically after the Spanish Conquistadors invaded the Andes mountains in 1532, after which 98% of the animals were destroyed. The Spanish also brought with them diseases that were fatal to alpacas.[30]

European conquest forced the animals to move higher into the mountains,[how?] which remained there permanently. Although alpacas had almost been wiped out completely, they were rediscovered sometime during the 19th century by Europeans. After finding uses for them, the animals became important to societies during the industrial revolution.[31]


Alpacas chew their food which ends up being mixed with their cud and saliva and then they swallow it. Alpacas usually eat 1.5% of their body weight daily for normal growth.[32] They mainly need pasture grass, hay, or silage but some may also need supplemental energy and protein foods and they will also normally try to chew on almost anything (e.g. empty bottle). Most alpaca ranchers rotate their feeding grounds so the grass can regrow and fecal parasites may die before reusing the area. Pasture grass is a great source of protein. When seasons change, the grass loses or gains more protein. For example, in the spring, the pasture grass has about 20% protein while in the summer, it only has 6%.[32] They need more energy supplements in the winter to produce body heat and warmth. They get their fiber from hay or from long stems which provides them with vitamin E. Green grass contains vitamin A and E.

Alpacas can eat natural unfertilized grass; however, ranchers can also supplement grass with low-protein grass hay. To provide selenium and other necessary vitamins, ranchers will feed their domestic alpacas a daily dose of grain to provide additional nutrients that are not fully obtained from their primary diet.[33] Alpacas may obtain the necessary vitamins in their native grazing ranges.


Alpacas, like other camelids, have a three-chambered stomach; combined with chewing cud, this three-chambered system allows maximum extraction of nutrients from low-quality forages. Alpacas are not ruminants, pseudo-ruminants, or modified ruminants, as there are many differences between the anatomy and physiology of a camelid and a ruminant stomach.[34]

Alpacas will chew their food in a figure eight motion, swallow the food, and then pass it into one of the stomach's chambers. The first and second chambers (called C1 and C2) are anaerobic fermentation chambers where the fermentation process begins. The alpaca will further absorb nutrients and water in the first part of the third chamber. The end of the third chamber (called C3) is where the stomach secretes acids to digest food and is the likely place where an alpaca will have ulcers if stressed.

Poisonous plants

Many plants are poisonous to the alpaca, including the bracken fern, Madagascar ragwort, oleander, and some azaleas. In common with similar livestock, others include: acorns, African rue, agave, amaryllis, autumn crocus, bear grass, broom snakeweed, buckwheat, ragweed, buttercups, calla lily, orange tree foliage, carnations, castor beans, and many others.[35]


Alpaca fleece is soft and possesses water and flame resistant properties, making it a valuable commodity.[36]

Alpacas are typically sheared once per year in the spring. Each shearing produces approximately 2.3 to 4.5 kilograms (5 to 10 pounds) of fiber per alpaca. An adult alpaca might produce 1.4 to 2.6 kilograms (50 to 90 ounces) of first-quality fiber as well as 1.4 to 2.8 kilograms (50 to 100 ounces) of second- and third-quality fiber. The quality of alpaca fiber is determined by how crimpy it is. Typically, the greater the number of small folds in the fiber, the greater the quality.


Alpacas were the subject of a speculative bubble between their introduction to North America in 1984 and the early 21st century. The price for American alpacas ranged from US$50 for a castrated male (gelding) to US$675,000 for the highest in the world, depending on breeding history, sex, and color.[37][38] In 2006, researchers warned that the higher prices sought for alpaca breeding stock were largely speculative and not supported by market fundamentals, given the low inherent returns per head from the main end product, alpaca fiber, and prices into the $100s per head rather than $10,000s would be required for a commercially viable fiber production herd.[39][40]

Marketed as "the investment you can hug" in television commercials by the Alpaca Owners and Breeders Association, the market for alpacas was almost entirely dependent on breeding and selling animals to new buyers, a classic sign of speculative bubbles in livestock. The bubble burst in 2007, with the price of alpaca breeding stock dropping by thousands of dollars each year thereafter. Many farmers found themselves unable to sell animals for any price, or even give them away.[41][42]

It is possible to raise up to 25 alpacas per hectare (10 alpacas per acre),[43] as they have a designated area for waste products and keep their eating area away from their waste area. However, this ratio differs from country to country and is highly dependent on the quality of pasture available (in many desert locations it is generally only possible to run one to three animals per acre due to lack of suitable vegetation). Fiber quality is the primary variant in the price achieved for alpaca wool; in Australia, it is common to classify the fiber by the thickness of the individual hairs and by the amount of vegetable matter contained in the supplied shearings.


Alpacas need to eat 1–2% of body weight per day, so about two 27 kg (60 lb) bales of grass hay per month per animal. When formulating a proper diet for alpacas, water and hay analysis should be performed to determine the proper vitamin and mineral supplementation program. Two options are to provide free choice salt/mineral powder or feed a specially formulated ration. Indigenous to the highest regions of the Andes, this harsh environment has created an extremely hardy animal, so only minimal housing and predator fencing are needed.[44] The alpaca's three-chambered stomachs allow for extremely efficient digestion. There are no viable seeds in the manure, because alpacas prefer to only eat tender plant leaves, and will not consume thick plant stems; therefore, alpaca manure does not need composting to enrich pastures or ornamental landscaping. Nail and teeth trimming are needed every six to twelve months, along with annual shearing.

Similar to ruminants, such as cattle and sheep, alpacas have only lower teeth at the front of their mouths; therefore, they do not pull the grass up by the roots. Rotating pastures is still important, though, as alpacas have a tendency to regraze an area repeatedly. Alpacas are fiber-producing animals; they do not need to be slaughtered to reap their product, and their fiber is a renewable resource that grows yearly.

Cultural presence

Alpacas are closely tied to cultural practices for Andeans people. Prior to colonization, the image of the alpaca was used in rituals and in their religious practices. Since the people in the region depended heavily on these animals for their sustenance, the alpaca was seen as a gift from Pachamama. Alpacas were used for their meat, fibers for clothing, and art, and their images in the form of conopas.

Conopas take their appearance from the Suri alpacas, with long locks flanking their sides and bangs covering the eyes, and a depression on the back. This depression is used in ritual practices, usually filled with coca leaves and fat from alpacas and lamas, to bring fertility and luck. While their use was prevalent before colonization, the attempts to convert the Andean people to Catholicism led to the acquisition of more than 3,400 conopas in Lima alone.

The origin of alpacas is depicted in legend; the legend states they came to be in the world after a goddess fell in love with a man. The goddess’ father only allowed her to be with her lover if he cared for her herd of alpacas. On top of caring for the herd, he was to always carry a small animal for his entire life. As the goddess came into our world, the alpacas followed her. Everything was fine until the man set the small animal down, and the goddess fled back to her home. On her way back home, the man attempted to stop her and her herd from fleeing. While he was not able to stop her from returning, he was able to stop a few alpacas from returning. These alpacas who did not make it back are said to be seen today in the swampy lands in the Andes waiting for the end of the world, so they may return to their goddess.[45]

Nuzzle and Scratch were two fictional alpacas who appeared on British children's television.[46]

See also References External links

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Alpaca - Commission-Free API-First Stock & Crypto Brokerage

Commissions Disclosure. No minimums. Commission-Free trading means that there are no commission charges for Alpaca self-directed individual cash brokerage accounts that trade U.S. listed securities through an API.Alpaca API allows developers and businesses to build apps, embed investing, and trade algorithms.


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image of Albaca, The New Bayside Dining Concept, Is Now Open At The ...

Albaca, The New Bayside Dining Concept, Is Now Open At The ...

Jun 07, 2019 · ALBACA also launches with it an impressive beverage program through a new indoor-outdoor bar, which features local craft beers and Baja wines. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cocktails – dubbed “zero-proof,” bring forth creative libations and mocktails, best-enjoyed poolside or on the restaurant’s picturesque patio.Boasting panoramic views of the San Diego Bay and iconic Coronado Bridge, the Coronado Island Marriott Resort & Spa’s new bayside dining experience, ALBACA, is now open for breakfast, lunch, and dinner..

Boasting panoramic views of the San Diego Bay and iconic Coronado Bridge, Southern California wellness resort, the Coronado Island Marriott Resort & Spa’s new bayside dining experience, ALBACA, is now open for breakfast, lunch, and dinner on Coronado Island.

Helmed by Executive Chef Rafael Corniel and Restaurant Chef Aaron Obregon, the restaurant combines the names “Alta” (AL), “Baja” (BA), and “California” (CA) to form the word ALBACA. The name is derived from when the Californias were one, and such designated as Alta and Baja. The new concept celebrates timeless Latin, Baja, and California flavors through simple food created with great ingredients that bring the best of the Californias to Coronado.

Personifying the resort’s focus on wellness, ALBACA’s menu is also designed to promote wellbeing through local ingredients, health-conscious dishes, and thoughtfully crafted menus. ALBACA also offers a selection of diet-friendly menu items created for a variety of palates and preferences, with Chef Aaron Obregon’s own veganism inspiring a selection of the restaurant’s signature dishes.

ALBACA also launches with it an impressive beverage program through a new indoor-outdoor bar, which features local craft beers and Baja wines. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cocktails – dubbed “zero-proof,” bring forth creative libations and mocktails, best-enjoyed poolside or on the restaurant’s picturesque patio.

A selection of ALBACA’s menu highlights include:


Chia Bowl Apricot | pomegranate | toasted almonds

Coronado Benedict Cornbread biscuit | pork belly | poached egg | cilantro jalapeno hollandaise | rosemary potatoes

OG Avocado Toast Multi-grain bread | poached egg | cucumber | radishes | ricotta cream | asparagus | tomatillo chimichurri

Vegan Hash Tempeh chorizo | mushrooms | potatoes | cheddar cheese | salsa verde | creme

Cinnamon Roll Toasted marshmallows | candied hazelnuts | nutella creme anglaise


White Bean Hummus Roasted mushrooms | tempeh chorizo | herb oil  | grilled bread | tomatillo chimichurri

Meal Bowls Forbidden rice mix | pinto beans | queso fresco | roasted vegetables | avocado | tomatillo salsa | with choice of chicken, fish, poached egg and tuna

Shrimp Rolled Tacos Bean puree | pico de gallo | avocado | tomatillo salsa | queso fresco | crema

Local Tuna Sandwich Roasted tomato | arugula | avocado | fried onions | umami aioli

Impossible Burger Cheddar cheese | almond mayo | roasted tomato pepper jam

Peel N Eat Shrimp Cilantro jalapeno remoulade


Green Bean and Beet Salad Arugula | agave cider vinaigrette | ricotta yogurt | toasted pumpkin seeds

Charred Cauliflower Black and blue butter | green mole sauce

Papas Al Mojo Crispy Idaho potatoes | aioli | red mojo sauce

Clam Toast Braised clams | bacon | aioli | salsa verde

Seafood Pasilla Rice Squid | octopus | wild Mexican shrimp | local fish | aioli | chimichurri

Duck Carnitas Forbidden mix rice | braised beans | pickled onions | charred tomatillo salsa | corn tortillas

ALTA Crispy Chicken Fideo seco | vegetable mole | local squash | cream

Snake River Rib Eye Black and blue potatoes | charred tomatoes | red and green mojo sauce | jalapeno corn cake

Located on the quiet side of Coronado, just steps away from the Coronado Ferry Landing, ALBACA features an idyllic indoor-outdoor design with a sun-drenched patio and bayside lawn overlooking the waters. The opening of ALBACA concludes the resort’s multi-year renovation journey, which transformed the Coronado Island Marriott into a wellness destination though new guest rooms, spa and wellness center, redesigned meeting spaces, lobby, fresh dining concepts, and more.

ALBACA is open seven days a week for breakfast, lunch and dinner.

image of Abacá - Wikipedia

Abacá - Wikipedia

Abacá (/ ɑː b ə ˈ k ɑː / ah-bə-KAH; Filipino: Abaka locally ), binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica.The plant, also known as Manila hemp, has great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber, also called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems..

Species of plant

Abaca ( ah-bə-KAH; Filipino: Abaka locally [ɐbɐˈka]), binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica. The plant, also known as Manila hemp, has great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber, also called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems. Abaca is also the traditional source of lustrous fiber hand-loomed into various indigenous textiles in the Philippines like t'nalak, as well as colonial-era sheer luxury fabrics known as nipis. They are also the source of fibers for sinamay, a loosely woven stiff material used for textiles as well as in traditional Philippine millinery.

The plant grows to 13–22 feet (4.0–6.7 m), and averages about 12 feet (3.7 m). The fiber was originally used for making twines and ropes; now most is pulped and used in a variety of specialized paper products including tea bags, filter paper and banknotes. It is classified as a hard fiber, along with coir, henequin and sisal.


The abaca plant is stoloniferous, meaning that the plant produces runners or shoots along the ground that then root at each segment.[1] Cutting and transplanting rooted runners is the primary technique for creating new plants, since seed growth is substantially slower.[nb 1][5] Abaca has a "false trunk" or pseudostem about 6–15 inches (15–38 cm) in diameter.[1] The leaf stalks (petioles) are expanded at the base to form sheaths that are tightly wrapped together to form the pseudostem. There are from 12 to 25 leaves, dark green on the top and pale green on the underside, sometimes with large brown patches. They are oblong in shape with a deltoid base.[1] They grow in succession. The petioles grow to at least 1 foot (30 cm) in length.[1]

When the plant is mature, the flower stalk grows up inside the pseudostem. The male flower has five petals, each about 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) long.[1] The leaf sheaths contain the valuable fiber. After harvesting, the coarse fibers range in length from 6–12 feet (180–370 cm) long.[1] They are composed primarily of cellulose, lignin, and pectin.

The fruit, which is inedible[1] and is rarely seen as harvesting occurs before the plant fruits, grows to about 2–3 inches (5.1–7.6 cm) in length and 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameter.[1] It has black turbinate seeds that are 0.167 inches (0.42 cm) in diameter.[1]


The abaca plant belongs to the banana family, Musaceae; it resembles the closely related wild seeded bananas, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Its scientific name is Musa textilis. Within the genus Musa, it is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.[6]

Genetic Diversity[edit]

The Philippines, especially the Bicol region in Luzon, has the most abaca genotypes and cultivars. Genetic analysis using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers revealed that the Philippines' abaca germplasm is genetically diverse.[7] Abaca genotypes in Luzon had higher genetic diversity than Visayas and Mindanao.[7] Ninety-five (95) percent was attributed to molecular variance within the population, and only 5% of the molecular variance to variation among populations.[7] Genetic analysis by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) revealed several clusters irrespective of geographical origin.[7]


Before synthetic textiles came into use, M. textilis was a major source of high quality fiber: soft, silky and fine.[8] Ancestors of the modern abaca are thought to have originated from the eastern Philippines, where there is significant rainfall throughout the year. Wild varieties of abaca can still be found in the interior forests of the island province of Catanduanes, away from cultivated areas.

Today, Catanduanes has many other modern kinds of abaca which are more competitive. For many years, breeders from various research institutions have made the cultivated varieties of Catanduanes even more competitive in local and international markets. This results in the optimum production of the island which had a consistent highest production throughout the archipelago.[citation needed]

Europeans first came into contact with Abaca fibre when Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines in 1521, as the natives were already cultivating it and utilizing it in bulk for textiles.[5] Throughout the Spanish colonial era, it was referred to as "medrinaque" cloth.[9] By 1897, the Philippines were exporting almost 100,000 tons of abaca,[4] and it was one of the three biggest cash crops, along with tobacco and sugar.[10] In fact, from 1850 through the end of the 19th century, sugar or abaca alternated with each other as the biggest export crop of the Philippines.[10] This 19th-century trade was predominantly with the United States and the making of ropes was done mainly in New England, although in time rope-making shifted back to the Philippines.[10]

Excluding the Philippines, abaca was first cultivated on a large scale in Sumatra in 1925 under the Dutch, who had observed its cultivation in the Philippines for cordage since the nineteenth century, followed up by plantings in Central America in 1929 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.[11] It also was transplanted into India and Guam.[5] Commercial planting began in 1930 in British North Borneo; at the onset of World War II, the supply from the Philippines was eliminated by the Empire of Japan.[11]

In the early 1900s, a train running from Danao to Argao would transport Philippine abaca from the plantations to Cebu City for export.[12] The railway system was destroyed during World War II; the abaca continues to be transported to Cebu by road.[13]

After the war, the U.S. Department of Agriculture started production in Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala.[5] Today, abaca is produced primarily in the Philippines and Ecuador.[14] The Philippines produces between 85%[15] and 95%[5] of the world's abaca, and the production employs 1.5 million people. Production has declined because of virus diseases.[15]


Due to its strength, it is a sought after product and is the strongest of the natural fibers.[5] It is used by the paper industry for such specialty uses such as tea bags, banknotes[16] and decorative papers.[5] It can be used to make handcrafts such as hats,[17] bags, carpets, clothing and furniture.

Abaca rope is very durable, flexible and resistant to salt water damage, allowing its use in hawsers, ship's lines and fishing nets.[11] A 1 inch (2.5 cm) rope can require 4 metric tons (8,800 lb) to break.[18] Abaca fiber was once used primarily for rope, but this application is now of minor significance. Lupis is the finest quality of abaca.[19] Sinamay is woven chiefly from abaca.[20]


The inner fibers are used in the making of hats, including the "Manila hats," hammocks, matting, cordage, ropes, coarse twines, and types of canvas. Abaca cloth is found in museum collections around the world, like the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Textile Museum of Canada.[21][22]

Philippine indigenous tribes still weave abaca-based textiles like t'nalak, made by the Tiboli tribe of South Cotabato, and dagmay, made by the Bagobo people.[23]


The plant is normally grown in well-drained loamy soil, using rhizomes planted at the start of the rainy season.[11] In addition, new plants can be started by seeds.[24] Growers harvest abaca fields every three to eight months after an initial growth period of 12–25 months.[1][11] Harvesting is done by removing the leaf-stems after flowering but before fruit appears.[1] The plant loses productivity between 15 and 40 years.[25] The slopes of volcanoes provide a preferred growing environment.[18] Harvesting generally includes several operations involving the leaf sheaths:

When the processing is complete, the bundles of fiber are pale and lustrous with a length of 6–12 feet (1.8–3.7 m).[24]

In Costa Rica, more modern harvest and drying techniques are being developed to accommodate the very high yields obtained there.

According to the Philippine Fiber Industry Development Authority, the Philippines provided 87.4% of the world's abaca in 2014, earning the Philippines US$111.33 million.[26] The demand is still greater than the supply.[26] The remainder came from Ecuador (12.5%) and Costa Rica (0.1%).[26] The Bicol region in the Philippines produced 27,885 metric tons of abaca in 2014, the largest of any Philippine region.[26]

The Philippine Rural Development Program (PRDP) and the Department of Agriculture reported that in 2009–2013, Bicol Region had 39% share of Philippine abaca production while overwhelming 92% comes from Catanduanes Island. Eastern Visayas, the second largest producer had 24% and the Davao Region, the third largest producer had 11% of the total production. Around 42 percent of the total abaca fiber shipments from the Philippines went to the United Kingdom in 2014, making it the top importer.[26] Germany imported 37.1 percent abaca pulp from the Philippines, importing around 7,755 metric tons (MT).[26] Sales of abaca cordage surged 20 percent in 2014 to a total of 5,093 MT from 4,240 MT, with the United States holding around 68 percent of the market.[26]


Abaca is vulnerable to a number of pathogens, notably abaca bunchy top virus, abaca bract mosaic virus,[15] and abaca mosaic virus.[27]

See also[edit] Notes[edit] Footnotes[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

image of Fresh Albaca Plant | Original Products Botanica

Fresh Albaca Plant | Original Products Botanica

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ALBACA Restaurant - Coronado, CA | OpenTable

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Our Menu - ALBACA

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Coronado happy hour - ALBACA

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Beneficios de la albahaca para la salud y consejos de uso

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Albahaca - Wikipedia

Albahaca may refer to: Ocimum campechianum ("albahaca de monte"), widespread across the Americas from Mexico southward. Ocimum basilicum, which is the basil ingredient for cooking, grown worldwide. Celosia virgata, a shrub found in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands..

Restaurant Abacá

ABACÁ is a contemporary Filipino-Californian restaurant, showcasing the beauty and vibrance of Filipino culture and cuisine. This family-owned restaurant has been a years-long journey in the making, compiling generations old family recipes, using the best ingredients Northern California has to offer, executed with skill and passion, honed in the kitchens of some of San Francisco’s ….

ALBACA - 55 Photos & 26 Reviews - American (New) - 2000 ...

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image of Restaurant Coronado Island San Diego - ALBACA

Restaurant Coronado Island San Diego - ALBACA

Nov 25, 2021 · ALBACA provides the perfect balance of taste, wellness and relaxation. Located on Coronado Island near the ferry landing, our restaurant offers an atmosphere of comfort and panoramic views of the San Diego skyline and the bay - as well as abundant California sun. Crafting simple food created with great ingredients, our team celebrates the ...Make your way to San Diego and enjoy regional dining al 'fresco in a welcoming atmosphere at ALBACA, the restaurant at Coronado Island Marriott Resort & Spa..

image of AlpacaHawk - YouTube

AlpacaHawk - YouTube

I make parodies of movies and other sources that I enjoy for my own entertainment, and I'm happy to share them with you. These videos are family-friendly and …I make parodies of movies and other sources that I enjoy for my own entertainment, and I'm happy to share them with you. These videos are family-friendly and....
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image of albaca | translate Spanish to English: Cambridge Dictionary

albaca | translate Spanish to English: Cambridge Dictionary

May 24, 2021 · albaca translate: basil. Learn more in the Cambridge Spanish-English Dictionary.albaca translate: basil. Learn more in the Cambridge Spanish-English Dictionary..
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ALBACA, Coronado - Menu, Prices, Restaurant Reviews ...

Mar 31, 2021 · Albaca. Claimed. Save. Share. 7 reviews #55 of 65 Restaurants in Coronado $$ - $$$ American. 2000 Second Street, Coronado, CA 92118 +1 619-522-3150 Website Menu. Open now : 06:30 AM - 2:00 PM5:00 PM - 9:00 PM. All photos (16).